Graphene Oxide Nanopillars Information Skeletal Muscle Differentiation


Novel analysis has been printed within the journal Nano Convergence on the regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue with the intention of utilizing nanotechnology to information muscle differentiation. 

Research: Nano-sized graphene oxide coated nanopillars on microgroove polymer arrays that improve skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Picture Credit score: Rattiya Thongdumhyu/

Right here, researchers used nanotechnology to information muscle differentiation with nano-sized graphene oxide (sGO)-modified nanopillars on microgroove hybrid polymer array (NMPA).

Fixing Present Skeletal Degeneration Points

Skeletal muscle has a important operate in physique actions and respiratory; muscle cells are contracted and launched as a result of complicated biochemical indicators generated and transferred from the peripheral and nervous methods.

Using nano-sized graphene oxide-modified nanopillars on microgroove polymer array for muscle differentiation. Picture Credit score: Choi, H., et al

Muscle tissue is predominantly composed of lengthy, postmitotic multinucleated fibers, and upkeep of this tissue is mediated by satellite tv for pc cells positioned intently. 

Muscle satellite tv for pc cells or satellite tv for pc stem cells may be activated by stimuli equivalent to bodily trauma or development indicators ensuing of their cell divisions, both growing their quantity or resulting in progenitors. The proliferation and differentiation of myogenic progenitors by fusion with one another or to broken fibers allow the restoration of broken fibers in addition to their related operate.

That is vital for sustaining muscle well being, which if misplaced can result in quite a few well being issues, together with power inflammatory ailments, most cancers, and neurological issues. Illness-related muscle atrophy and fatigue are vital as skeletal muscle weak point can lead to elevated hospitalization time, limitations in train, and general poor high quality of life. 

Whereas pure restore mechanisms might help with small infractions in skeletal muscle well being, with the lack of mass muscle bundles or harm from genetic abnormalities and mutations, the pure restore mechanism is ineffective.

Excitingly, skeletal muscle regeneration elements may be promising for fixing the degeneration of muscle tissue.

Novel analysis has centered on in vitro muscle cell technology by controlling the differentiation of multipotent stem cells or unipotent pre-myogenic cells equivalent to myoblasts.

 Affirmation of the impact of graphene oxide on cell behaviors. a FE-SEM photographs of PR nanohole patterns and PDMS nanopillar patterns, and b dimension distribution of PDMS patterns. Raman depth map of the naked PDMS, LGO-, 10-sGO-, and 5-sGO-modified PDMS. b Confocal microscope photographs of the cells on naked PDMS, LGO-, 10-sGO-, and 5-sGO-modified PDMS immunostained with actin (Pink) and Hoechst (Blue). c−e Cell spreading space (c), circularity (d), and cell facet ratio (e) of the cells on naked PDMS, LGO-, 10-sGO-, and 5-sGO-modified PDMS. f Schematic diagram of trypsin and centrifugation remedy course of. gh Cell ratio remaining on the PDMS, LGO-, 10-sGO-, and 5-sGO-modified PDMS after trypsin (g) and centrifugation (h) remedy. (* p ≤ 0.5, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001). Picture Credit score: Choi, H., et al

Inducing Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

The commonest technique of inducing skeletal muscle cell differentiation includes utilizing a cultivation medium containing numerous myogenic differentiation elements, together with FGF, TGF-β, and IGF. This could probably modulate the mobile microenvironment, together with the extracellular matrix (ECM), and have an effect on the state of cells.

An modern analysis staff has utilized nano-sized graphene oxide (sGO) of assorted sizes on a microgroove hybrid polymer array (NMPA) to research the best technique of controlling skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

The incorporation of graphene oxide (GO) can enhance cell adhesion ranges on micropatterned polymeric arrays and nanopatterns by strategies equivalent to scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

The above schematic diagram can illustrate how nano-sized graphene oxide-modified nanopillars on a microgroove polymer array can be utilized to seed skeletal muscle cells and permit for enhanced cell adhesion together with hybrid sample arrays equivalent to nanopatterns and micropatterns.

Three totally different parameters had been investigated on this examine: cell spreading, circularity, and facet ratio of the myoblast cell line, C2C12. The effectivity of skeletal muscle cell differentiation of this cell line was evaluated utilizing immunofluorescence.

This novel analysis has resulted in excitingly optimistic outcomes, which enabled the enhancement of skeletal muscle cell fabrication. The hybrid sample arrays utilized by the researchers had been discovered to reinforce cell spreading and alignment. Moreover, with the incorporation of graphene oxide on the hybrid sample array, the differentiation of cells and steady cell tradition on the polymer substrate was elevated concurrently.

Affirmation of myogenic differentiation of the cells. a Brightfield photographs of the cells on the naked PDMS, LG-NMPA, 10-sG-NMPA, and 5-sGO-NMPA. b Confocal microscope photographs of the cells on naked PDMS, LG-NMPA, 10-sG-NMPA, and 5-sGO-NMPA immunostained with α-actin (Inexperienced), MHC (Pink), and Hoechst (Blue). c The graph for imply depth divided by variety of nuclei. d Schematic diagram of the correlation between GO dimension and cell differentiation based mostly on the imply depth knowledge. (* p ≤ 0.5). Picture Credit score: Choi, H., et al

The Way forward for Regeneration

This novel regenerative technique using GO-coated NMPA may be seen as an efficient platform for skeletal muscle cell differentiation. This analysis is a important step for furthering the sector of regenerative drugs in addition to biorobot expertise that includes muscle cells and polymer substrates.

Using this analysis for tissue engineering gives a foundation for additional analysis into probably novel therapies that may goal skeletal muscle cell harm after accidents, in addition to genetic mutations and issues.

Enhancing the sector of medication on this method may be revolutionary for tissue engineering and regeneration, and permits for affected person care to be a precedence, making certain good high quality of life for an growing older inhabitants.

Proceed studying: Oxidation-Discount Processes for Graphene and Graphene Oxide Manufacturing.


Choi, H., Kim, C., Lee, S., Kim, T. and Oh, B., (2021) Nano-sized graphene oxide coated nanopillars on microgroove polymer arrays that improve skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Nano Convergence, 8(1). Accessible at:

Additional Studying:

Dumont, N., Bentzinger, C., Sincennes, M. and Rudnicki, M., (2015) Satellite tv for pc Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. Complete Physiology, pp.1027-1059. Accessible at:

Powers, S., Lynch, G., Murphy, Ok., Reid, M. and Zijdewind, I., (2016) Illness-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue. Medication & Science in Sports activities & Train, 48(11), pp.2307-2319.Accessible at:

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