Graphene Oxide Can Shield Cells Towards Rubella Virus An infection


Graphene has been revered for its outstanding traits, from electrical conductivity to its antimicrobial results since being found in 2004. Revolutionary analysis printed within the journal, Supplies, has illustrated the impression of graphene oxide towards the Rubella virus an infection on human lung epithelial carcinoma cells and human chondrocyte cells.

rubella, graphene oxide

Research: A Research of the Impression of Graphene Oxide on Viral An infection Associated to A549 and TC28a2 Human Cell Strains. Picture Credit score: Design_Cells/

Why is the Rubella Virus a Concern?

Like many viruses, the Rubella virus (RuV) can enter the physique by means of the respiratory tract and trigger irritation, resulting in probably extreme sicknesses. Moreover, this makes the cartilage throughout the bronchi weak to the virus. With RuV receptors being on each cell, this virus can induce a cytopathic impact on cartilage cells or chondrocytes.

XRD patterns of obtained graphene oxide material (above) compared to the reference pattern of graphite.

XRD patterns of obtained graphene oxide materials (above) in comparison with the reference sample of graphite.© Kuropka, P., et al (2021)

The analysis crew investigating this virus has utilized two human cell strains, the human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549 cell line) as a mannequin for sort II pulmonary epithelial cells, in addition to human chondrocyte cells (TC28a2 cell line).

Chondrocytes have been used resulting from their sensitivity to environmental modifications that happen throughout irritation, akin to throughout a viral an infection. Moreover, these cells additionally support in testing the cytopathic impact of pathogens or compounds. When utilizing these cell strains, the novel nanomaterial graphene oxide shouldn’t be taken up by cells in giant volumes however as an alternative ought to adhere to the cell membranes to forestall the virus from adhering and getting into cells.

This virus can be concerned in numerous congenital ailments, together with arthritis, and will be harmful for pregnant ladies and their unborn fetuses. Whereas vaccinations normally shield towards the Rubella virus, its affinity to chondrocytes remains to be ambiguous. Moreover, infections in pregnant ladies who don’t have the antibodies to struggle the RuV will be inclined to associated sicknesses whereas additionally transferring this susceptibility to the fetus.

Apparently, the researchers on this novel examine aimed to find out whether or not RuV could have a cytopathic impact on chondrocytes and the A549 cell line and if graphene oxide can restrict the unfold of RuV in vitro.

Graphene Oxide

The character of graphene oxide (GO) allows its use in a variety of organic and medical functions. This progressive nanomaterial will be utilized to hold energetic substances to be used as a specialised drug supply system to particular areas because of the attention-grabbing nature of graphene, which has no electrical cost, and being neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic, permitting it to be the proper candidate for a drug provider and storing energetic substances.

SEM images of graphene oxide material. The arrows showed particularity of obtained graphene oxide.

SEM pictures of graphene oxide materials. The arrows confirmed particularity of obtained graphene oxide. © Kuropka, P., et al (2021)

Analysis into drug and gene supply has already been established with the usage of graphene for future antibacterial and anticancer therapies. Nevertheless, the response of graphene oxide inside cells depends on the interplay with biomolecules akin to proteins or lipids on the cell membrane.

The progressive analysis by this explicit examine illustrates that GO has a excessive affinity to the cell floor of chondrocytes and limits the cell absorption floor in addition to the contact to protein receptors for ligands. This premise can allow an antiviral technique with graphene used as traps for viruses or a way to restrict or stop the accessibility of the cell floor to viruses.

The 2 cell strains have been incubated with graphene oxide and together with RuV, and the cytopathic impact was measured by means of a DAPI dye. The outcomes illustrated no cytopathic results with the only real use of graphene oxide; nevertheless Rubella virus alone was confirmed to be extremely cytopathic to cells.

Apparently, when graphene oxide and RuV have been utilized in mixture, the cytopathicity was considerably decrease in cells, illustrating graphene oxide’s protecting traits in direction of cells towards the Rubella virus. an infection to cells, reducing its cytopathic modifications to the human cells.

Revolutionary Purposes for the Future

This technique may very well be revolutionary for a public well being technique to guard populations towards viruses such because the Rubella virus, which might nonetheless be harmful for the weak, akin to pregnant ladies and youngsters. Moreover, this may also be utilized to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in a devasting degree of mortality.

Using graphene oxide as a protecting technique will be universalized to be used towards all viruses, stopping the results of novel variants in addition to from new potential pandemics.

Percentage of cytopathic effect in A549 cell line. RuV—cells infected with RuV, GO—cells with graphene added, GO + RuV—cells infected with RuV and with graphene added. Statistical significance at p < 0.05, a: when compared to control group; b: when compared to RuV group.

 Proportion of cytopathic impact in A549 cell line. RuV—cells contaminated with RuV, GO—cells with graphene added, GO + RuV—cells contaminated with RuV and with graphene added. Statistical significance at p < 0.05, a: when in comparison with management group; b: when in comparison with RuV group.© Kuropka, P., et al (2021)

Proceed studying: Graphene for Biomedical Purposes.


Kuropka, P., Dobrzynski, M., Bazanow, B., Stygar, D., Gebarowski, T., Leskow, A., Tarnowska, M., Szyszka, Ok., Malecka, M., Nowak, N., Strek, W. and Wiglusz, R., (2021) A Research of the Impression of Graphene Oxide on Viral An infection Associated to A549 and TC28a2 Human Cell Strains. Supplies, 14(24), p.7788. Accessible at:

Additional Studying

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Useful resource Middle. (2021) Mortality Analyses – Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Useful resource Middle. [online] Accessible at:

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